The cities, known as Camlihemsin and Hemsin in our geography today were known as only Hemsin before the year 1946.High villages of Ardesen, Fındıklı, Cayeli,Pazar and İkizdere were depadent on Hemsin.Firstly Hemşin was joined to Selcuklu Empire by Alparslan after Malazgirt War in 1071.After the war 70.000 immigrants settled in that region in 1072.
According to documents of prime minister archieve Cevdet Turkay wrote in his book ‘’Burrow ,Tribe and Communes’’ that in Hemsin region generally Tanrı Mountain people settled in that area. In 1184 Hemsin was seen as a part of Pontus Trabzon empire but it did not affected from the occupation thanks to its mountainous and forested lands. Thet kept Turkish traditions until Fatih Sultan incorporated these people as kadim or muslims before 1941 and the ottoman gravestones epitaphs ram headed gravestones fountains mansions and ottoman book social and economic life in the flogs of Trabzon in 15th. and 16th. centuries about Hemsin zaimi in ottoman tahrir book the book dated 1515 he also urote about hemsin serasker zaimi and Hemsin-i bala a fortress of monagers are betting that time is Hemsin’in accident was caused by the 1515-1532 dates with the grooming of ıcmal book vilayet-i Hemşin and town ship Hemşin phrase of the past and provides information about population.
In 1520 subject to the Hemşin total estimated population who lived in region was 3619 people 2288 of them were Christian and 1331 of them were Muslims on the same date total population of Rize province was 39,378,36.706 of them were Christians and 2676 of them were Muslims at the Atina (Pazar) province the total population was 19.837 , 17.505 of them were Christian and 2332 of them were Muslims there is a reduction in the Muslim population in Hemşin andonincreease in Pazar and it is canfirmed by the presence of families moving from Hemşin to Pazar with the dates 1515-1532 in grooming icmal book the number of house holds of vilayeti.Hemşin is 679 in the periyod 1876-1909 there were some settlemets at the time of fatih sultan Mehmet Kanuni Sultan Süleyman and 2. Abdulhamit
In the dated 25.08.1931 numbered 355571 prime ministry archive document it is stated that 18 households from Hemsin from the border of Kars while asylum by the Russians opened fire on police in the refugee in the reaction against the Posof governor cut the fire of the cattle of refugees in the Russian side.
In the document dorted 5.11.1933 and numbered 15223 it is stated that with the Artvin province of the former even if a nomad in the 89 Hemşin family be recovered from nomadism to settlement act written document reisi Cumhur Gazi Mustafa Kemal’s sighature is located in 1520 1566 the beginning of Kanuni Sultan Süleyman‘s period Hemsin a separate city in Trabzon liva had three villages; Hemsin ,Kara Hemsin and Aksenos also (mirliva) the manager of had the rank of brigadier general.
In the same period the manoger of Hemsin was Mahmut Celebi who was the great lord of the monor and also ottoman sipahi and head of the military was Ali Koruk .Ali Koruk’s and mirliva Mahmut Bey’s man was Mahmut Nalbant who exiled from mora Bosna and he came with mezrak family to Hemsin ın that time the production of Hemsin region was detected us olumg an order in the center of the state according to sources (patent leather) leather (şiral),sail cloth ,strained honey,honey candles (niyabet resm-i) , exaecutive Money (res-i),the goods received from the treasury (cerayim),from jews (arusiye) who married again received were in the form of taxes Hemsın was consitedof 34 villages and 671 households .there were two fortresses within Hemşin border the castle known as zil castle in the vulgar tonque actually is called kala-i Hemsin-i Zır .prime ministry arehive Trabzon Tahrir book no 387 page 733.12 hicri 733.12 cemaziyülahr miledi 1519 the zil castle is a strueture of Pontus the Pontus king mitriades 6 was a far prudent king.thinking of the fate of the lond within Pontus especially in the black sea region they made fortresses to Access the chancery even in impossible positions and placed their treasure in same of these fortresses it is supposed to coincide with the construction of the castle 70 years before christ the zil castle was later repaired in the period of Trabzon greek empire according to records in 1520 in the castle there was a dizdar (castellon) a kethuda (dizdar the second) an imam and a preacher a bevvab (custodien) a fenari a haddad (blacksmith) an artillery and thirty-three merdan (castle soldier).today the castle above is called as the kale-i bala and below as the Zil castle in those years the castle above had 40 private soldiers. In the report of Trabzon province dated 1876, it is stated at all villages connected to Hemsin and Pazar (Atina) had Turkish population
The Name of Hemsin
Hemşin a word oring of Şin, is used as a unifying means of preposition in Ottoman Turkish it comes to the beginning of preposition an Arabic names like das preposition in Turkish and provides adjectives showing unity and partnership as an example Aramıs means listened but Hemarmıs means listened together with the rest .Also nişin means sit in a sense but hemnişin means together and shield since XIII. Century until today gathered from books 1957 edition of the Turkish language institution of witnesses screening glossary IV. In 1540 the composition of nimetullah Efendi Lügat-i Nimetullah from Persian to Turkish is a pervasive reference for Şin. It means Sen (flourishing) festive place .So Hemsin means breezy mountalin top castles mountain villages in the head .hemsin is a name given to a geographical region .hemsinli is not an ethnic identity , it means Hillman.
Emşen means in Turkish: lamb leather, leather for making coat. Hemşinliler (Emşinliler) can be referred to as the wear lambskin as their working life dominated by a livestock. Changes as may be shown or Hemşin Postpay Hemşen. Because the language used in the region Hemşin show parallelism with Divan-ı Lügatı Türk.
Şen: In Ottoman-Turkish dictionary by Ferit Develioğlu 1) pleasing to the eye, and the case to heart, 2)As has been stated to be with freshness synonymous with giving Sen. Şen mean in Turkish is bee wax.
In Large Turkish Dictionary by Hayat Publishing defined ŞEN as a residential, a place with sunshine, a place with fun.
Example of the whole or local Hemşin word means Mountains village or the mountain festival . Hemşen location means the festival is the direction in which the geographic location is suitable Hemşin yesterday and today.
In this regard, the most important guiding is the Hacı Memis Pasha Yaltkaya”s village which is founded in 1862(Gomno) Papager neighborhood of the mosque has inscription.
Inscription of the mosque Gomno Village Neighborhood Papager
This ambition was much work for ya latif mecd ber believers in mey
Her bed was not the basis eltaf-rabbülalemin
And care to build a mirmiran hema
This point of honour with my theme Hemşeni was hemnişin
Ta mim said date was Ahmet Behçet
Haci Memis Pasha he's Gali temple
Hemnişin also means living together was given above.
East Turkestan is concentrated in the mountain regions of the early settlement which was known as Hemşin.
Works in the area belonging to the Ottoman period, the scientists from the region has undoubtedly connected.
In Sultan II. Mahmuts term the Yeniçeri barrack was removed then there is need for new troops. Sultan writes a mail for needs of troops to Trabzon governorship. Aga”s in Trabzon was send a 1000 troops to sultans command. Halit Aga send 450 from Badire Village, Muhtar Mahmut Aga send 350,Kırhısaroğlu Süleyman Aga send 100 and Fareoğlu Memiş Aga was send 100 troops to sultans command. They are lived in Hemşin.
Damat Mehmet Ali Pasa, the sea captain also who is Sadrazam is from Hemşin. Hacı Ali sons family and Galata Hazelnut Merchant Network Top Box is the son of Hacı Ömer Ağa.
Yusuf Talat efendi was the soon of Poduroğlu Mustafa Aga and born in hemsin in the year 1853.
Ahmet Hamdi Efendi was the son of Hamza Yahuza Aga and born in Hemsin in 1855.
Hafez reşit efendi was the son of Hamza yahuza aga and born in hemsin in 1855.ali necip efendi was the son of Ahmet efendı and was born in 1859 in hemsin
Recep Fehmi efendi was the son of kürtzade ali gaip efendi and was born in Hemşin in 1859
Yusuf efendi is also known as Yusuf nadir and Yusuf dehri Feyzullah dehrizade was the son of abdulkadir efadi and was born in Hemşin in 1868
Mehmet Hulusi efendi was the son of temüşoğlu Mehmet arif efendi and was born in Hemşin in 1871.
Ahmet edip efendi and was the son of Numan efendi zade abdulkadir aga and born in Hemşin in 1872.
Erdem efendi was the son of Demircioğlu Mehmet efendi and born in Hemşin in 1871 .
Hüseyin avni efendi was the son of naipzade Süleyman efendi and born in hemsin in 1878
Ahmet Mithat efendi was the son of the Mehmet oğlu Süleyman efendi and born in Hemşin in 1878
Mehmet sükrü was one of the poet of the ottoman period and born in hemsin in 1840 .his first teacher was Osman the son of hemsin’s religion head and he has unpress book.
Hacı hafız Yusuf was one of the poet of ottoman period and born in molaveıs village hemsin in 1850 his father’s name ia miktat .he has a published work named as kulak küpesi.
Ahmet galip efendi was the son of merehant ali efendi and born in hemsin in 1881.ömer lütfü efendi was the son of behlül son of behlül Vehbi efendi and was born in Hemşin in 1882
İn the two graves in front of Tevfik ileri’s grandfather home, who is from İmamoğlu family and born in 1991 there were two epitaphs one of them is alioğlu mullah soloman and the other is asan oğlu beşe.date of death as written in 1732.
Outside the mouth area of the village name is written in the inscription was written and salname for example; Çingit, Çinkit, Padara, Badire, Canava - Sanova, Şamelli, Sahmerli etc. İn kasgarlı mahmud’s divanü lüga-it türk and in Yusuf has hacip’s kudatgu bilig omong 24 türkish tribe ,çigil ;çiyil uğrak tribe and çingil village people hence hemsin people has some connections .
Again the karahanli family in çingit (ugrak) village is in connection with the turkish karahanli tribe.
Indeed there are many groves and famous people that we count reach or detect .our aim in the region is to promote the culture and history to explain documents and to shed light on the region
After letter inkilabi many ottoman documents were destroyed unconsciously by local people.
In addition, a 1610 dated enactment, an article called “A Page of History, in ”Vehbi Güney’s 1969 dated magazine, the premiership archive, page 79, adjugment 626; is a significant document considering the history of Hemşin.
In the enactment, it is stated that Hemşin castle landowner Hüsam and his son Murtaza had taken many possessions and lands of the people of İlivre and Varoş and sold them to other people before he became the landowner “aga”. Furthermore, it continues as, by becoming a bandit, Murtaza had illegally deforced the beefs, goats and stores of the village people and by attacking suddenly to the houses of the security guards, the father and the son had made all the evil things. As this was an informed event, “it should be examined within the rules of law and may supreme command has been passed regarding the poor’s reclaim of their rights”.
A contract note we have detected in Hemşin is a significant document about the relationship of the settlement in the region with the trade issues.
This note has been sold to İbrahim, the son of Buçuk, with a fee of 10 Kuruş. He has accepted this sale. He has wanted us to register this process. So, we have registered it, as the Sultan had commended, by giving 10 dirham wax and Islamic tithe to the landowner. Third parties are not involved in this.
Seyit Ahmet- Tax Receiver of Hemşin
Of the imperial enactment found in the house of Honourable Abdullah Doruk, the charter that 1640- 1648 Sultan İbrahim gave to Osman Caliph B. Hüseyin considering the restoration of The Mosque Sherif belonging to the Çötenez village of Hemşin district is a crucial document, illuminating the history of the region.
The passing of such a charter considering the restoration of the old mosque in a region hard to Access, dated 1640- 1648, means a lot as it examines the ethnicity and faith of the people of the region along with other documents.
Prime Ministry File Agency writings are important documents for the identity of the public living there.
The Sultan AbdülHamit period signature -(1876)- (1906)- is under the protection of İnceoğlu family, which shows the enactment about the families placed to Bodollu village.
Osmanlı recordings are aware of this document and it is the genealogy of Hemşin.
Terms are stated in the “tezkire” work. With this document, it is presented that he is from the Cevbioğulları genealogy of Hemşin district of Ottoman State and his religion is Islam and, and this is appropriate for the religious laws.
This certifies that during the Ottoman- Russia war around the Caucasian region, the people known as Turks in the area must be subject to residency rules.
Ottoman Graves in Hemşin
Gravestones and epigraphs are the most valuable works of our culture and history. These objects have such features as carrying the documentary qualities of history, art, culture and also being a kind of source.
Grave culture has developed differently in different religions and nations. It would be wise to examine Turkish- Ottoman grave culture as before and after the advent of Islam.
The graves of Turkish people before Islam, graves of Gokturk Empire and Uygur State in the Middle East, the traditions of erecting stone on the graves, making grave stones of such domestic animals as horse, ram, sheep; and erecting grave stone of ram to the first master in the place where they have migrated are all historical documents certifying the places where our ancestors have lived.
In the early years of Islam, it was considered to be a sin to build a permanent grave due to the faith which advocates that human beings come from dust and shall return to the dust. Only putting a stone on the grave so as to hinder the beasts to take out the dead was allowed. During the expansion period of Islam, the rules concerning the graves did not attract attention among Turks. The habitual grave culture continued and it is observed that Islam’s expectations of forgiveness, prayer and mercy of God after death was attached to the present culture of grave stones.
Beginning in ancient times, the tradition of grave stones in Ottomans has obtained a unique identity of a work of art that is unprecedented in any other culture. The grave stones were built due to the sex of the dead; in men’s graves the heading was put forward, and the decorations in women’s graves bore the traces of pre- Islam culture. The experts investigating the Ottoman graves are in agreement in that this influence above in the graves of Ottomans is the result of the culture of Middle East Shamans.
The grave stones with ram statues in Çamlı Hemşin’s Ülkü village and Aşağı Çamlıca street are the evidences of Turkish existence in the region before the Battle of Malazgirt.
Among the grave stones with ram statues in the Eastern Black Sea region, the one in the Ülkü village has been brought to Rize Atatürk Museum.
Among the about 200 grave stones in the region the oldest Ottoman grave was found in old name Molla veyis, new name Ülkü village.
Haji Abdullah Zade Mü sellim Haji Osman’s grave stone dates from 1111 (1699). The graves that bear the date of 1703 of Müsellim Osman, son of Hacı Abdullah ,and Mahmut Beşe, son of Hasan Beşe in Uğrak Village, have the oldest epigraphs that we have detected.
The dates of the epigraphs found in the Hemşin graves are the oldest grave stone epigraphs in the Black Sea Region (“Mü sellim” means administrator). What’s more, on the Stonehenge of the old mosque with a ram statue, it is stated that it was built by Hatice Lady, daughter of Mehmet in 1700. It is inarguable that this is a vital thing for the history of the region since a mosque was built by a lady in a highland and inaccessible place.
The writings in Rize- Hemşin Region begin with the name of God as a result of the faith. Grave stones written as (Hüvel Baki), which means “God is eternal”, are predominant. (Ah minel mevt), meaning “O bitter death” is found in the graves of young people.
The titles in the gravestones generally include Hacı Ağa, Ağa, Bey, Molla, Beşe, Efendi, Hacı Efendi, Çelebi, Zade, Usta.
The title mostly used on men’s graves is “Aga”, which means “landowner”. Although “Aga” is a kind of title depicting the relationship degree within the family, it is most commonly used for the landowners in the upper circle. It is a common view among the experts that this title was given to the officials in the Ottoman Palace and janissaries who had the highest position.
Hacı İbrahim Ağa, son of Haji Ahmet, is the Aga of Serdengeçti, in the Badire Village Bahar Street. His date of death is 1778. Serdengeçti is a military degree in Ottomans. Following Aga, the second title on the Ottoman gravestones is Efendi, which means “Master and Sir”. It was given to some certain fields of education, and under this title, these duties were written on the grave stone.
Hemşin Naîbi, meaning “the regent of Hemşin”, is written on the grave stone The following illustrations show the grave stones and their epigraphs, written in Ottoman Turkish of Hacı Yunus Efendi, in Çamlı Hemşin’s Yukarı Şimşirli Street.
Regent (Naip) is a duty given to the deputies, district governors and procuratrixes. Haji Yunus Efendi’s date of death is 1865.
There are 4 grave stones including the title of Beşe in the region and the oldest one is in the (Çinkit) Uğrak village. Mahmut Beşe’s, son of Hasan Beşe, date of death is 1703.
The title of Beşe is considered to be the subtype of “admiral or pasha”. Lexical meaning of Beşe is great son and it is known that this title was used for the correspondence of “chairman and command” in the 13th and 14th century Turkish. Experts exploring Istanbul grave stones state that they have come across Beşe titled gravestones in the upper cirlcle janissaries’ grave stones.
Another title is “zade”. Zade is used on the old gravestones instead of the surname and bear the meanings of “son and descendance” of well- known people. The word is Persian – origin, such as Blind han zade, Ferah zade.
The title of Çelebi was given to Sultan’s sons in the early periods of Ottomans. In addition, it was given to people who are literate, well mannered, and to people whose ancestors are Haji Bektaş and Mevlana, head of Mevlevi Sect. Çelebi titled grave stone can be found in the Bahar Street of Hemşin District.
Eyüp Çelebi’s, son of Mullah Ahmet, date of death is 1746.
The lexical meanings of Mullah are:
1. Great kadi ( Muslim Judge) of all
2. Great schoolman, all-knowing.
This title is observed as Mullah or son of Mullah on the Hemşin grave stones.
The father of Eyüp Çelebi in Badire village is Mullah Ahmet. Lady Züleyha’s father in (Çinkit) Uğrak village, Pazar District, is Mullah Ali. Lady Züleyha’s date of death is 1807. There are families known as Mullah Ali’s in the same village. There are families in (Meles kur) Orta yol Village known as Mullahs and taking the writing on Ahmet’s, son of Mat, grave stone into consideration, it can be argued that the descendance of the family stems from the Mullahs: “My ancestor is Hodja, My ancestor is Hafız (one who has memorized Quran), nothing wrong with my generation”.
In the same village, such titles as Bilals, Azizes, Molla Ömers are given to the arms of the Körhanzade lineage, and this proves that there are Mullahs in the family. We was not able to reach Mullah Ömer’s date of birth and death. Aziz’s, son of Mullah Ömer, date of birth is 1806.
We should consider the graves in Hemşin, Rize as a cultural heritage and the grave stones as a work of art. The exterior walls of the grave are made of cut stone. It is said by the old craftsmen that they are made of a mixture called “Khorasan Grout” including lime, sand, albumin and molasses. It is observed that this mixture is used in the construction of bridges and mansions in the region.
Graves are generally located around the Mosque. Even though there are graves in the abutment of Sen Yuva and Ortan Village, there are historical graves around Şen Yuva Mosque. Many graves are within the forest, we have failed to reach due to the lay. For example, 5 more Ottoman graves were located after the thorns behind the mosque of (Meles kur) Orta yol Village had been cleaned. Yet, there was no chance to monitorize or read it.
The stones used for the gravestones were marble and there is no such stone in the region. As a reply to our question concerning the appearance of marbles in the region, the old ones said “They may have come from Istanbul, Trabzon and Russia”.
Considering the cost of grave making a grave, it is a fact that only wealthy families had such graves.
The decorations in the graves, especially the artistic way in the women’s graves, are not only masterpieces but seem magnificent, as well.
In the grave stones of the women, especially in Bahar Street and Orta Yol Village son of Prim graves, beautiful characteristics of calligraphy are observed. Decorations are generally implemented on the foot stone and the writings are generally decorated in the head stone. Most of the women’s grave stones are plainly decorated. The head stones are in a half way and the writings are enframed.
The most magnificent man grave is Hacji Hüseyin Aga’s gravestone, behind the mosque in Uğrak Village. Haji Hüseyin Aga, son of Sıçan is among the Eastern Black Sea Region senate, who are ordered to go into Soğucak and Arapa cities in Caucasia, due to the war with Russia, beginning in 1789. It is stated in Ottoman sources that Sıçan Haji Hüseyin Aga went to the war with 100 soldiers.
The grave is composed of two parts, in the war of a chest and the foot stones are made in a coherent way with the chest. The head and foot stone are 1 meter high, 50 cm. wide, 120 cm. high, 10 cm. thick, the girth of chest is 1 meter, 75 cm. high and 120 cm. wide. In thickness, the side parts are ignored and the inside part is curved. It is hard to answer how this grave stone was brought to its current place.
While examining the grave stones in Rize- Hemşin District we preferred to photograph all the graves and put the writings as much as possible. Yet, we could not re- photograph the ones which were slightly visible. Up to us, all the graves in Hemşin alone can serve as a PhD. Dissertation and they should definitely be protected by The Ministry of Culture.
The mosque, epigraphs, mansion and fountain are the cultural values that are should be protected, as well. We believe that the Ottoman Mosques in the region, which have a 150- 300 years of construction period, should be examined and eternalised both in terms of interior and exterior architecture. There are enactments concerning the collapse and reconstruction of the mosques in the region.
In the back wall of the new mosque in Aşağı Çamlıca Street, the pulpit stone made for the old mosque, in the form of a glyptic art, in 1700, is now used in the new mosque as a cornerstone. What’s more, in the mosque of Orto Yol Village, the stone of the old mosque is installed to the wall of the one built later. The year of build of the old stone is 1859, and the one of the mosque is 1896.
The tablets in the mansions, which include date of build and benedictions, have Turkish baths in all of the rooms and they serve as a kind of document in terms of religion end ethnicity of the people there. According to the national census in 1876, found in Trabzon city Annual, the ethnicity of the people is ascertained and documented. Since the geographical conditions have forced the people to migrate and be absent from home continuously, most of Hemşin’s population had to be absent from home after 1830.
We have published the researchers we made in villages and plateaus, in the south of Kaçkar Mountain, as Rize Hemşin Ottoman grave stones and epigraphs. After the publication of the book composed of grave, fountain and mansion tablets around 200, we found the opportunity to find out many grave stones of Ottoman period. Our works solely reflcet Hemşin and Çamlıhemşin. The existence of Ottoman graves in İkizdere, Çayeli, Ardeşen and Fındıklı is clearly known and as soon as possible they will be detected and published in the book to be published.
Those who want to explore Hemşin region, will perform a better one, if they write the truth by providing evidence and seeing the region.
The people from Hemşin who have these documents will not only illuminate the history but also will be eternalised in the books if they let us have them.
With my wishes to have further explorations of Hemşin, I express my gratitude to the researchers of whose works I have made use.
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